Why Were the Earliest Galaxies In the Universe Brighter Than Those We See Today?


First Galaxies


“We did not expect that Spitzer, with a mirror no larger than a Hula-Hoop, would be capable of seeing galaxies so close to the dawn of time,” said Michael Werner, Spitzer’s project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California in 2019. “But nature is full of surprises, and the unexpected brightness of these early galaxies, together with Spitzer’s superb performance, puts them within range of our small but powerful observatory.”


One of the Last Great Mysteries of the Early Universe

Black Hole of Early Universe


Did supermassive black holes exist shortly after the big bang, before the birth of stars? “This is one of the last great mysteries of the early universe,” said Kirk S. S. Barrow in 2018, currently at Harvard’s CfA, about how supermassive black holes formed during the birth of a galaxy. It’s a mystery the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) may soon be able to solve.


Has the First Planet Beyond the Milky Way Been Discovered –Or is It Something More Interesting? (Weekend Feature)


Whirlpool Galaxy


In 2019 the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz for pioneering a new field in astronomy with the discovery of the first planet beyond our solar system, 51 Pegasi b. Since the discovery in 1991, over 4,000 exoplanets have been found in our home galaxy. “We answered a very old question,” Mayor said, which was debated by philosophers since the ancient Greeks: “are there other worlds in the Universe?”


Relic Galaxies Found Untouched Across Cosmic Time

Ultra Compact Galaxy


Massive ultracompact galaxies have similar numbers of stars as our Milky Way but are confined to only a tenth the size or a thousandth the volume. They evolve in an accelerated way when compared to other galaxies in the Universe. By understanding their properties, astronomers can understand the eventual fate of all galaxies, including our own Milky Way.


The Weirdness of Dark-Matter Free Galaxies

Ultra Diffuse Galaxy


Welcome to our very strange Universe. And, yes, that is a galaxy. The discovery of yet another dark-matter free, ultra-diffuse galaxy, raises a number of unanswered questions for astronomers: how are they formed? What do they tell us about standard cosmological models? How common are they, and what other unique properties do they have? It will take the discovery of more dark-matter-less galaxies to resolve the ultimate question of what dark matter really is.


Universal Mechanics of Galaxies – Outer Edge Rotates Once Every Billion Years 




In 2018, astronomers discovered that the stars in the outer rims of galaxies would rotate once every billion years, no matter how big they are. “It’s not Swiss-watch precision,” said Dr. Gerhardt Meurer with the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), who studies the interrelationship between the interstellar medium (ISM) and the various populations of stars and dark matter; in particular, how stars form in galaxies. “But regardless of whether a galaxy is very big or very small,’ he explains, “if you could sit on the extreme edge of its disk as it spins, it would take you about a billion years to go all the way round.”