“The Dark Ocean” –New Antarctica Marine World Hidden from the Sun for 100,00 Years



In July 2017, a giant iceberg broke off from the Larsen C ice shelf east of the Antarctic Peninsula, unveiling a large swathe of ocean that has existed in darkness beneath the ice for more than 100,000 years, and might hold clues to the evolution and mobility of marine life and its response to climate change –an unexplored world that has existed longer than the evolution of the human neocortex, our “super-brain,” no later than 75,000 years ago that spurred our capacity for novelty and invention.


Mystery of Extraterrestrial Life –“Unlike Earth, It Rarely Evolves Quickly Enough to Survive” (Weekend Feature)

Earth from Space


“The mystery of why we haven’t yet found signs of aliens may have less to do with the likelihood of the origin of life or intelligence and have more to do with the rarity of the rapid emergence of biological regulation of feedback cycles on planetary surfaces,” said Aditya Chopra at Australia National University. “Early life is fragile, so we believe it rarely evolves quickly enough to survive.”


Evolution of Human ‘Super Brain’ –“Revealed by Our Closest Living Relative”

Human Brain


“These chimpanzee organoids give us an otherwise inaccessible window to six million years of our evolution. They let us ask new questions about what makes us human,” said Alex Pollen, assistant professor of neurology at UC San Francisco.


“The iPhone Diet” –Energy Demands of the Early Human Brain Led to Craving for Fat

Map of Human Brain


“A craving for marrow could have fueled not just a growing brain size, but the quest to go beyond smashing bones with rocks to make more sophisticated tools and to hunt large animals. That’s how all technology originated—taking one thing and using it to alter something else,” says Jessica Thompson, lead author and expert in human evolution at Yale University. “That’s the origin of the iPhone right there.”


“Cave of Mystery” –Evidence of a Lost Branch of Human Evolution

Ancient Human Species


In August 2018, researchers discovered a bone fragment from a girl whose mother was a Neanderthal and father was a Denisovan in a remote cave in Siberia. In the study, researchers estimate that this hybrid child lived between 79,100 and 118,100 years ago. Modern humans, scientists discovered, share a common ancestor with Denisovans and Neanderthals that lived roughly 600,000 years ago. Later — approximately 390,00 years ago — the Neanderthal and Denisovan lineages split.


Origin of Life –“Complexity Can Emerge Spontaneously, Without Evolution”

Carbon Molecules in Space


An important  new observation has been made about the origin of life in the cosmos: “Apparently, you can get these complex molecules before biological evolution has started,” said Sijbren Otto at the University of Groningen.


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