Quantum Birth of the Universe –Becomes a Multiverse, an Eternally Growing Fractal


The Multiverse


“In some pockets of space, far beyond the limits of our observations,” wrote cosmologist Dan Hooper at the University of Chicago in an email to The Daily Galaxy, referring to the theory of eternal inflation and the inflationary multiverse: “the laws of physics could be very different from those we find in our local universe. Different forms of matter could exist, which experience different kinds of forces. In this sense, what we call ‘the laws of physics’, instead of being a universal fact of nature, could be an environmental fact, which varies from place to place, or from time to time.”


“Mars Will Kill You” –NASA’s Curiosity Rover is Making Mars Radiation-Blasted Landscape Safe for Human Exploration


Mars Surface


“The only things our planet and Mars really have in common is that both are rocky planets with some water ice and both have robots (and Mars doesn’t even have that many),” writes Shannon Stirone for The Atlantic. “Granted, walking around on Mars would be a life-changing, amazing, profound experience,” she notes. “But visiting as a proof of technology or to expand the frontier of human possibility is very different from living there. It is not in the realm of hospitable to humans. Mars will kill you.”


“Milky Way’s Sweet Spot” –Earth at Center of Galactic Habitable Zone


ESO Milky Way Plane


In the 2019 research paper, “The Galactic Habitable Zone and the Age Distribution of Complex Life in the Milky Way”, astrobiologist and lead author, Charles H. Lineweaver of Australia National University, summarized: “We modeled the evolution of the Milky Way to trace the distribution in space and time of four prerequisites for complex life: the presence of a host star, enough heavy elements to form terrestrial planets, sufficient time for biological evolution and an environment free of life-extinguishing supernovae. We identified the ‘Galactic habitable zone’ (GHZ) as an annular region between 7 and 9 kiloparsecs from the Galactic center that widens with time and is composed of stars that formed between 8 and 4 billion years ago.”


Superionic Ice –A New State of Matter that Solves the Puzzle of the Existence of Ice Worlds in Our Solar System


Neptune Voyager 2


In 2019, scientists confirmed the existence of “superionic ice,” a new almost metal-like phase of water that is black and hot, first theoretically predicted more than 30 years ago. Although it has never been seen until then, scientists think this new state of matter might be among the most common forms of water in the universe. “It’s not quite a new phase of water. It’s really a new state of matter,” said physicist Livia Bove of France’s National Center for Scientific Research and Pierre and Marie Curie University. “Which is rather spectacular.”


Fast Facts About Star-Forming Regions of the Universe

Orion Nebula


Stars are born in nurseries with a collection of siblings that range in mass but share chemical compositions and dynamic histories. The natal environment containing a large number of “just-born” celestial objects is called a “Star Forming Region”. We find them scattered across the Milky Way primarily in the disk of the Galaxy.  In this article I review four fast facts of these critical components to propagating new generations of stars in the Universe.

Jackie Faherty, astrophysicist at the American Museum of Natural History and Editor at The Daily Galaxy.


Ten Seconds After the Big Bang –An ‘Upside Down’ Universe


Big Bang Image


“When antimatter and matter meet, they annihilate, and the result is light and nothing else. Given equal amounts of matter and antimatter, nothing would remain once the reaction was completed. As long as we don’t know why more matter exists than antimatter, we can’t know why the building blocks of anything else exist, either. This is one of the biggest unsolved problems in physics,” says quantum physicist Jens Oluf Andersen at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.