New ‘Alien’ Species Rapidly Evolving in Antarctica’s Waters

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Epochs of intense climate change trigger the evolution of new species. The deep sea, the planet’s largest ecosystem, is an ancient ark of relics from the dinosaur era, where “living fossils” exist at the same time that new species are rapidly evolving. New research shows that evolution of new species to be highest in Earth’s coldest region, Antarctica, whose waters are still recovering from extinction events of tens of millions of years ago, when ice sheets began to dominate and water temperatures plummeted.