Dark Matter –“May Be Older Than the Big Bang”

Dark Matter


“We do not know what dark matter is, but if it has anything to do with any scalar particles, it may be older than the Big Bang,” says astrophysicist Tommi Tenkanen at the Johns Hopkins University, who was not part of a 2019 University of Tokyo study that proposed the axion as a candidate for dark matter. The only fundamental scalar quantum field that has been observed in nature is the Higgs field-a field of energy that is thought to exist in every region of the universe.


Black Holes of the Infant Cosmos –“Gateways to Alien Worlds?”

Primordial Black Hole


Black holes are “a one-way door out of our universe,” said Event Horizon Telescope director and astronomer Sheperd S. Doeleman of the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. They are described by Ellie Mae O’Hagan with The Guardian as “the point at which every physical law of the known universe collapses. Perhaps it is the closest thing there is to hell: it is an abyss, a moment of oblivion.”


“Stretching & Squashing Spacetime” –LIGO Gravitational-Wave Alerts Now Available to the Public

Merging Black Holes


Future Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) alerts may likely come from a globular cluster, with the closest cluster residing about 7,000 light years from Earth. When a gravitational wave transit the Milky Way, it stretches and squashes space-time, making pulsars and the Earth jiggle.