NASA’s Parker Solar Probe Achieves 20th Close Approach to the Sun

By Lydia Amazouz Published on July 5, 2024 13:30
Nasa's Parker Solar Probe Achieves 20th Close Approach To The Sun

NASA's Parker Solar Probe has successfully completed its 20th close approach to the sun, achieving a significant milestone in its mission to study the solar corona.

This remarkable feat underscores the probe's robust design and the meticulous planning involved in its journey to unlock the secrets of the sun's outer atmosphere.

The Parker Solar Probe, launched in 2018, continues to push the boundaries of solar exploration, providing invaluable data that will enhance our understanding of the sun and its impact on the solar system.

Repeated Records and Mission Achievements

On June 30, 2024, the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) came within 4.51 million miles (7.26 million kilometers) of the solar surface, matching its previous distance record. During this perihelion, the spacecraft moved at a staggering speed of 394,736 miles per hour (635,266 kilometers per hour).

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This close approach marks the midpoint of the probe’s 20th solar encounter, which began on June 25 and will continue through July 5. The mission team at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, where the spacecraft was designed and built, confirmed that the spacecraft is in good health, with all systems functioning normally following the close approach. This achievement not only highlights the probe's resilience but also the effectiveness of the mission’s design and execution.

The Parker Solar Probe’s repeated records are a testament to the mission’s success in navigating the harsh conditions near the sun. Each close approach, or perihelion, allows the probe to collect critical data about the sun’s corona, the outermost part of its atmosphere.

This region is of particular interest to scientists because it holds the key to understanding solar winds and space weather phenomena that can have profound effects on Earth. By coming closer to the sun than any previous spacecraft, the Parker Solar Probe provides unprecedented insights into the mechanisms driving these phenomena.

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Parker Solar Probe's Mission Objectives

Launched in 2018, the Parker Solar Probe is designed to study the upper layer of the solar atmosphere, known as the corona. By understanding the processes occurring within the corona, scientists aim to gain insights into solar winds and space weather phenomena that can impact Earth.

The corona is a region of the sun where temperatures soar to millions of degrees, significantly hotter than the surface below. This puzzling temperature inversion is one of the mysteries the Parker Solar Probe seeks to unravel.

To achieve its mission, the probe performs a series of gravitational maneuvers near Venus, gradually reducing its distance to the sun with each orbit. These maneuvers are crucial for shaping the probe’s trajectory, allowing it to “dive” into the corona and collect valuable data.

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The probe’s sophisticated instruments are designed to withstand the extreme temperatures and radiation conditions found near the sun, enabling it to capture high-resolution images and detailed measurements of the corona’s magnetic fields, plasma, and energetic particles.

"PSP was launched in 2018. It is designed to study the upper layer of the solar atmosphere, called the corona, and the processes taking place in it," noted Universe Magazine. By capturing and analyzing this data, scientists hope to better understand the sun’s behavior and its influence on the solar system.

The findings from the Parker Solar Probe are expected to contribute to improved space weather forecasting, which is vital for protecting satellites, power grids, and communication systems on Earth.

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Future Orbits and Final Maneuvers

The Parker Solar Probe is set to make another close approach to the sun on September 30, 2024, at the same distance and speed. The mission’s critical phase will occur on November 6, 2024, when the probe performs its final flyby of Venus.

This maneuver will position the probe for its closest planned approach to the sun, bringing it within just 3.8 million miles (6.2 million kilometers) of the solar surface on December 24, 2024. During this approach, the probe is expected to reach speeds of approximately 430,000 miles per hour (700,000 kilometers per hour), making it the fastest human-made object ever.

This series of maneuvers and close approaches will enable the Parker Solar Probe to gather unprecedented data on solar activity and the sun’s outer atmosphere. These findings are expected to enhance our understanding of the sun’s behavior and its influence on the solar system.

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The data collected during these final approaches will be critical for validating and refining existing models of the sun’s corona and its interactions with the heliosphere, the vast bubble of space influenced by the sun’s magnetic field and solar wind.

The successful completion of these close approaches demonstrates the probe’s resilience and the effectiveness of its design and mission planning. As the probe continues to gather data, scientists anticipate groundbreaking discoveries that will further our knowledge of the sun and its interactions with the space environment.

The Parker Solar Probe’s mission represents a significant leap forward in solar science, offering a deeper understanding of the fundamental processes that govern our star and its impact on the solar system.


An editor specializing in astronomy and space industry, passionate about uncovering the mysteries of the universe and the technological advances that propel space exploration.

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