Rocket Lab’s Electron Launches Second NASA PREFIRE Cubesat

By Lydia Amazouz Published on June 5, 2024 09:16
Rocket Lab Electron Launches Second NASA PREFIRE Cubesat

A Rocket Lab Electron rocket successfully launched the second of NASA's PREFIRE (Polar Radiant Energy in the Far-InfraRed Experiment) cubesats, marking a significant step in understanding Earth's polar climate dynamics.

This mission is essential for climate science as it aims to close a crucial gap in our knowledge of how much heat is lost from Earth's polar regions to space. The precise measurement of this heat loss is fundamental to improving climate models, which are critical for predicting the impacts of global warming on ice melt and sea level rise.

Rocket Lab's Electron Successfully Launches NASA's Second PREFIRE

On June 4, 2024, at 11:15 p.m. EDT, Rocket Lab's Electron rocket lifted off from Launch Complex 1 in Māhia, New Zealand, successfully carrying the second PREFIRE cubesat into orbit. This event marked a critical milestone as it was the seventh launch of the year for the Electron rocket.

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The launch proceeded smoothly after overcoming a previous delay on May 31 due to liquid oxygen temperature issues. The Electron rocket deployed the PREFIRE cubesat approximately one hour after liftoff, placing it into a sun-synchronous orbit.

This precise orbit allows the satellite to maintain a consistent position relative to the sun, enabling continuous monitoring of infrared emissions from the Earth's polar regions. The successful deployment of this cubesat followed the launch of its twin on May 25, positioning both satellites to work in tandem for comprehensive data collection.

Mission Objectives and Scientific Goals

The PREFIRE mission, a collaborative project between NASA and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, aims to significantly enhance our understanding of Earth's polar climates. Each of the two 6U cubesats is equipped with advanced thermal infrared spectrometers designed to measure far-infrared radiation emitted from the polar regions.

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These spectrometers use specially shaped mirrors and detectors to split and analyze infrared light. The primary objective is to gather detailed data on the energy balance of these regions, which play a critical role in global climate dynamics.

By deploying two satellites in slightly different orbits, scientists can observe the changes in infrared emissions over time, providing a more dynamic and comprehensive view of the polar climates. This approach will enable researchers to study phenomena such as ice sheet melting, cloud formation, and atmospheric moisture variations with unprecedented detail.

Importance of the PREFIRE Mission

Understanding the Earth's energy balance, particularly in the polar regions, is crucial for advancing climate science. The polar regions are sensitive indicators of climate change, and precise data on heat loss from these areas is essential for developing accurate climate models. These models help predict future climate scenarios, including sea ice loss, ice sheet melt, and sea level rise.

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The PREFIRE mission aims to fill a significant gap in our knowledge by providing detailed measurements of far-infrared radiation from the Arctic and Antarctic. This information will improve the accuracy of climate models, leading to better predictions of how global warming will affect the Earth's climate system. Moreover, the data collected by the PREFIRE cubesats will support efforts to mitigate the impacts of climate change by informing policy decisions and adaptation strategies.

Collaborative Effort and Future Launches

The PREFIRE mission represents a collaborative effort involving multiple institutions and partners. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Southern California manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate and provided the thermal infrared spectrometers.

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The University of Wisconsin-Madison is responsible for processing the data collected by the instruments, with contributions from scientists at the Universities of Michigan and Colorado. Blue Canyon Technologies built the cubesats, showcasing the expertise and coordination required to execute such a complex mission.

Looking ahead, Rocket Lab is preparing for its 50th Electron launch, scheduled to occur between June 10 and July 9, with the likely customer being Kinéis, a French company developing an Internet of Things (IoT) satellite constellation. This upcoming launch will further demonstrate Rocket Lab's capability to deliver high-frequency and reliable access to space, supporting a wide range of scientific and commercial missions.

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The successful launch and deployment of the second PREFIRE cubesat marks a significant achievement in space-based climate research. By enhancing our understanding of the Earth's polar energy balance, the PREFIRE mission will contribute valuable data that will help refine climate models and improve predictions of future climate changes. This mission underscores the importance of international collaboration and technological innovation in addressing the global challenge of climate change.


An editor specializing in astronomy and space industry, passionate about uncovering the mysteries of the universe and the technological advances that propel space exploration.

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