New Analysis Reveals CO2’s Greater Impact on Global Temperature Than Previously Thought

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By Lydia Amazouz Published on June 25, 2024 10:30
New Analysis Reveals Co2's Greater Impact On Global Temperature Than Previously Thought

Recent studies have shown that a doubling of CO2 levels in the atmosphere could lead to a significantly higher increase in global temperatures than previously estimated.

This finding comes from an analysis of sediments from the Pacific Ocean near California, conducted by researchers from the NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research and the Universities of Utrecht and Bristol.

Significant Findings from Ocean Sediment Analysis

The research utilized a 45-year-old drill core from the Pacific Ocean, revealing insights into the Earth's climate over the past 18 million years. This drill core, preserved under oxygen-free conditions for millions of years, provided a rich source of organic material. The study found that a doubling of atmospheric CO2 could result in an average temperature increase on Earth ranging from 7 to 14 degrees Celsius.

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This is substantially higher than the 2.3 to 4.5 degrees predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Caitlyn Witkowski, the study's lead author, emphasized the significance of these findings: "The temperature rise we found is much larger than the 2.3 to 4.5 degrees that the UN climate panel, IPCC, has been estimating so far."

The preserved core allowed researchers to analyze ancient organic matter, which, according to Professor Jaap Sinninghe Damsté, senior scientist at NIOZ, "offers a unique glimpse into the past climate conditions." The ocean floor’s long-term oxygen-free state slowed down the breakdown of organic material, enabling the preservation of carbon compounds that provide insights into historical atmospheric conditions. This analysis marks a significant step in understanding the long-term climate sensitivity to CO2.

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Methodology: Combining TEX86 and New Approaches

The researchers employed the TEX86 method to estimate past sea temperatures. This method uses specific substances present in the membranes of archaea, microorganisms that adapt their membrane composition based on water temperature. These molecular fossils found in ocean sediments provided crucial temperature data. This method, developed 20 years ago at NIOZ, relies on analyzing the chemical signatures left by archaea, which are particularly resilient and informative due to their long-term preservation in sediment layers.

To estimate past atmospheric CO2 levels, the team developed a new approach involving the analysis of chlorophyll and cholesterol found in algae. These compounds' chemical composition varies with the CO2 concentration in water, correlating with atmospheric CO2 levels. Damsté elaborated, "A very small fraction of the carbon on Earth occurs in a 'heavy form,' 13C instead of the usual 12C. Algae have a clear preference for 12C.

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However, the lower the CO2 concentration in the water, the more algae will also use the rare 13C. Thus, the 13C content of these two substances is a measure of the CO2 content of the ocean water." This innovative method provided a more accurate historical record of CO2 levels, demonstrating a decline from approximately 650 parts per million 15 million years ago to about 280 parts per million just before the industrial revolution.

Unprecedented CO2 Levels: Historical Insights and Future Climate Implications

The study's results indicate that the relationship between CO2 levels and global temperature is stronger than previously accounted for. By graphing the derived temperatures and atmospheric CO2 levels from the past 15 million years, the researchers observed a significant correlation. The average temperature 15 million years ago was over 18 degrees Celsius, which is 4 degrees warmer than today and similar to the extreme scenarios predicted by the IPCC for 2100. This historical perspective suggests that future climate conditions could be more extreme if CO2 levels continue to rise unchecked.

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Damsté highlighted the implications of these findings: "So, this research gives us a glimpse of what the future could hold if we take too few measures to reduce CO2 emissions and also implement few technological innovations to offset emissions. The clear warning from this research is CO2 concentration is likely to have a stronger impact on temperature than we are currently taking into account." The study underscores the potential for more severe climate impacts than currently anticipated, stressing the urgency for enhanced climate action and innovative solutions to mitigate CO2 emissions.

The methodology and findings of this study offer a critical reevaluation of climate models and projections. By providing a more detailed and extended historical climate record, the research challenges existing assumptions and emphasizes the need for revised climate sensitivity parameters in predictive models. This insight is crucial for policymakers and scientists working to develop effective strategies to combat global warming and its associated impacts on the planet's ecosystems and human societies.

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1 comment on «New Analysis Reveals CO2’s Greater Impact on Global Temperature Than Previously Thought»

  • Censible

    Wouldn’t it be wonderful, if decision making ww up to young people, instead of old farts? We might have. Better world.

    Reply
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