NASA’s Juno Reveals Potential Plumes and Activity Beneath Europa’s Icy Surface

By Lydia Amazouz Published on May 17, 2024 07:00
NASA's Juno Reveals Potential Plumes and Activity Beneath Europa's Icy Surface

NASA's Juno spacecraft has captured remarkable images of Jupiter’s moon Europa, revealing potential plume activity and intriguing geological features that suggest dynamic processes beneath the icy surface.

Europa, one of Jupiter's largest moons, is known for its smooth ice-covered exterior and the possibility of a subsurface ocean, making it a prime candidate in the search for extraterrestrial life. These observations set the stage for the upcoming Europa Clipper mission, which aims to explore the moon's habitability.

Potential Plume Activity Detected by NASA's Juno

During its flyby on September 29, 2022, Juno captured images that hint at plume activity on Europa. If confirmed, these plumes could provide a unique opportunity for future missions to sample the moon's internal ocean without the need for landing or drilling.

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Plumes have previously been observed on Saturn’s moon Enceladus, where they eject material from the subsurface ocean into space. Similar activity on Europa would significantly enhance our understanding of the moon's potential to support life.

The detection of plumes would allow spacecraft to fly through these jets and analyze their composition directly, offering a glimpse into the subsurface ocean’s chemistry and potential for harboring microbial life. This discovery has far-reaching implications for astrobiology and the search for extraterrestrial life within our solar system.

Geological Insights and True Polar Wander

Juno’s images also revealed steep-walled depressions and fracture patterns on Europa’s surface. These features are indicative of "true polar wander," a phenomenon where the moon’s icy shell rotates independently of its rocky interior.

This decoupling is likely driven by internal ocean currents influenced by tidal heating from Jupiter’s gravitational pull. These currents create stress on the ice, resulting in cracks and ridges that mark the surface.

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The identification of these patterns in Europa's southern hemisphere extends our knowledge of the moon's geological activity.

This process suggests a highly dynamic interaction between the surface ice and the underlying ocean, where heat and motion from the ocean create surface features that evolve over time. Understanding these interactions helps scientists build models of Europa’s internal structure and the forces shaping its exterior.

Revisiting Europa's Surface Features

Juno’s close-up images have led to new interpretations of Europa’s surface features. For instance, what was once thought to be an impact crater, named Gwern, is now understood to be a set of intersecting ridges creating an optical illusion.

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This revelation underscores the complexity of Europa’s geology and the need for high-resolution imagery to accurately interpret surface features. Another intriguing feature, dubbed the "Platypus" for its unique shape, appears to be formed by pockets of salt water that have partially penetrated the ice shell.

The feature, named by planetary scientists who have apparently never seen a real platypus outlined in yellow, with a region of ridges in blue.

These pockets are exciting targets for future exploration as they might provide direct access to subsurface water. The presence of such features suggests that Europa’s ice shell is not uniformly thick and that there may be regions where the ice is thinner and more dynamic, possibly facilitating easier access to the underlying ocean.

Implications for the Europa Clipper Mission

The data collected by Juno paves the way for the Europa Clipper mission, scheduled to launch in the 2020s. This mission will conduct detailed reconnaissance of Europa's ice shell and subsurface ocean, focusing on its habitability.

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The possibility of sampling plumes directly will allow scientists to analyze the composition of the ocean, searching for organic molecules and other signs of life. The Europa Clipper will be equipped with advanced instruments to map the ice, study the moon's geology, and measure the thickness of the ice shell.

These instruments will provide unprecedented detail about the physical properties of Europa's surface and subsurface, helping to identify potential landing sites for future missions that could drill into the ice and directly sample the ocean below. The mission will also explore the thermal and chemical dynamics within the ice shell, shedding light on the processes that drive the moon’s geologic activity.

Broader Context of Ocean Worlds

Europa is one of several "ocean worlds" in our solar system, bodies that have significant subsurface oceans beneath their icy crusts. The study of Europa contributes to a broader understanding of these enigmatic worlds, including Saturn’s moon Enceladus and Jupiter’s moon Ganymede.

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Each of these moons presents unique opportunities and challenges for exploration, and comparative studies can reveal commonalities and differences in their geologic and hydrologic processes. Insights gained from Europa can inform the search for life in other ocean worlds, guiding the development of future missions and exploration strategies.

The concept of ocean worlds has expanded the horizons of astrobiology, highlighting that habitable environments might exist in places far from the traditional habitable zone around stars. Understanding these environments could provide crucial clues about the conditions necessary for life and the potential diversity of life forms that might exist in the universe.


An editor specializing in astronomy and space industry, passionate about uncovering the mysteries of the universe and the technological advances that propel space exploration.

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