Behemoth sunspot AR3664 unleashes its biggest solar flare yet (video)

By Arezki Amiri Published on May 10, 2024 11:42
Behemoth Sunspot Ar3664 Unleashes Its Biggest Solar Flare Yet

In a display of cosmic fireworks, the gargantuan sunspot AR3664 has emitted an X3.98-class solar flare, its most powerful burst to date. This event, which occurred in the early hours of May 10, 2024, has significant implications for Earth, including the temporary disruption of high-frequency radio communications across Asia, eastern Europe, and eastern Africa.

The solar flare explained

Sunspot AR3664, known for its recent flurry of both X and M class flares, produced this record-setting X-class eruption at approximately 2:54 a.m. GMT. This type of flare represents the highest category of solar flares, with intense bursts of electromagnetic radiation that can have immediate effects on Earth's ionosphere, affecting radio signals and potentially leading to blackouts.

Impact on Earth: radio blackouts and more

The X3.98 flare caused considerable disruptions, leading to either temporary or complete loss of high-frequency radio communications over large regions. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has been closely monitoring these effects, which stem from the ionization of the upper layers of the atmosphere by the solar flare's powerful X-rays and ultraviolet radiation. This process creates denser layers in the ionosphere, complicating the path of radio waves through the atmosphere.

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Radio Blackout

Looking ahead: geomagnetic storms

This solar flare was also accompanied by a coronal mass ejection (CME), adding another layer of complexity to space weather forecasting. The CME, a massive burst of plasma and magnetic fields from the sun, can take several days to reach Earth and has the potential to cause geomagnetic storms. Such storms are expected to enhance auroral activity and could impact satellite operations and power grids. The NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center has issued a G4 geomagnetic storm watch for the coming weekend, indicating a severe storm that could have wide-reaching effects on modern technology.

Increased solar activity: nearing solar maximum

The recent uptick in solar activity is indicative of the sun nearing its solar maximum, the peak phase of its 11-year solar cycle. This period is marked by an increase in the number and intensity of sunspots and solar flares. Scientists and space weather experts are vigilantly monitoring these developments, as the active sun poses both challenges and opportunities for understanding space weather and its effects on Earth.

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Understanding and predicting the behavior of our sun is crucial as we continue to rely on satellite technology for communication, navigation, and data transmission. Organizations like NASA and NOAA play a vital role in providing timely alerts and updates to mitigate the effects of space weather on our increasingly technology-dependent world.


A defense and military industry specialist with a keen understanding of space dynamics. Expertise spans technological innovations in defense strategies and the integration of space technologies into military applications.

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