Airbus to Build ESA’s Vigil Space Weather Satellite

By Lydia Amazouz Published on May 23, 2024 09:00
Airbus To Build Esa's Vigil Space Weather Satellite

The European Space Agency (ESA) has contracted Airbus Defence and Space to develop the Vigil satellite, a pioneering mission aimed at improving space weather forecasting.

With a budget of €340 million, this mission represents a significant advancement in our ability to monitor and respond to solar activity that can impact Earth. Vigil's mission will provide critical data to protect infrastructure and advance scientific understanding.

ESA's Vigil Mission

Vigil will be Europe's first dedicated space weather forecasting satellite, designed to provide early warnings of severe space weather events such as solar storms. These events can disrupt power grids, communication networks, and satellites, posing risks to both terrestrial and space-based infrastructure.

Airbus To Build Esa's Vigil Space Weather Satellite

The satellite will operate from the Lagrange point L5, a stable position in space that allows continuous observation of the Sun's activity days before it becomes visible from Earth. This vantage point is ideal for early detection of solar phenomena that could affect Earth.

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Lagrange Points Pillars

Technological Capabilities

Airbus Defence and Space will develop the spacecraft, which is equipped with advanced instruments to monitor solar activity in real-time. Key instruments include:

  • Photospheric Magnetographic Imager: To capture high-resolution images of the Sun's magnetic fields, helping to identify sunspots and magnetic field changes.
  • Heliospheric Imager: For observing solar wind and other interplanetary phenomena, providing data on solar particles and their trajectories.
  • Compact Coronagraph: To study the Sun's corona and detect coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which are major drivers of space weather events.
  • Plasma Analyser: To analyze the properties of solar wind, contributing to our understanding of solar material that reaches Earth.
  • Magnetometer: To measure magnetic fields in space, essential for understanding the solar wind's interaction with Earth's magnetosphere.
  • Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (JEDI): Provided by NASA to capture ultraviolet light from the Sun, revealing details of solar flares and other energetic events.
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Scientific and Practical Objectives

Vigil's primary objective is to enhance the precision and lead time of space weather forecasts. By providing early warnings, operators of critical infrastructure can take protective measures to minimize disruptions. The data collected by

Vigil will also contribute to scientific research, helping scientists better understand solar phenomena and their impact on space weather. This information is crucial for developing models that predict the behavior of the Sun and its effects on the Earth.

Importance of Space Weather Forecasting

Space weather events, such as the Carrington Event of 1859, can have catastrophic effects on modern technology. The Carrington Event caused widespread telegraph system failures and auroras visible as far south as the Caribbean. If a similar event occurred today, it could lead to extensive blackouts, communication disruptions, and satellite damage.

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Vigil aims to mitigate such risks by offering unprecedented early warnings and detailed forecasts. This will not only protect satellites and power grids but also safeguard astronauts and space missions. By providing accurate forecasts, Vigil will help ensure the continuity and safety of services that modern society depends on.

Collaborative Efforts

The Vigil mission is a collaborative effort involving international partners, including NASA and NOAA, which are contributing instruments and expertise. This international collaboration enhances the mission's capabilities and fosters a shared approach to tackling global challenges posed by space weather.

The partnership with NASA and NOAA exemplifies the importance of global cooperation in addressing space weather threats, leveraging the strengths and expertise of multiple organizations.

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Future Implications

Scheduled for launch in 2031, Vigil will set a new standard for space weather monitoring. Its success could pave the way for additional missions and technological advancements, ensuring that humanity is better prepared to face the challenges posed by the Sun's activity.

The data provided by Vigil will be invaluable for developing new technologies and strategies to protect Earth from the adverse effects of space weather. Additionally, the mission's success could inspire further investments in space weather research and infrastructure, leading to even greater advancements in our ability to monitor and predict solar activity.

Enhancing Infrastructure Resilience

One of the key benefits of the Vigil mission will be its contribution to enhancing the resilience of global infrastructure. By providing early warnings of solar storms, Vigil will enable utility companies to protect power grids from damage caused by geomagnetic induced currents (GICs).

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Similarly, satellite operators can take preventive actions to safeguard communication and navigation systems from the adverse effects of space weather. This proactive approach will reduce the economic impact of space weather events and ensure the reliability of essential services.

Advancing Scientific Knowledge

Beyond its practical applications, the Vigil mission will significantly advance our scientific understanding of the Sun and space weather. The data collected will be used to refine existing models of solar activity and develop new theories about the behavior of the Sun.

This research will contribute to the broader field of heliophysics, enhancing our knowledge of how the Sun influences the solar system. The mission will also provide valuable insights into the fundamental processes driving space weather, leading to improved predictive capabilities and better protection for Earth


An editor specializing in astronomy and space industry, passionate about uncovering the mysteries of the universe and the technological advances that propel space exploration.

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