How Did Gargantuan Galaxies Appear So Soon After the Big Bang?

    How¬† monster galaxies appeared shortly (in cosmological time) after the Big Bang is one of the most debated questions of modern astrophysics. An elliptical galaxy 12 billion light years away defies conventional models of its origins: it must have accumulated its enormous mass within 1.8 billion years after the big bang, less than … Continue reading How Did Gargantuan Galaxies Appear So Soon After the Big Bang?