The Quasar Enigma –Massively Dense Luminous Objects at the Dawn of the Universe


Quasars of Early Universe


Black holes are usually formed in the explosive deaths of massive stars. In dense environments like globular clusters and the cores of massive galaxies, several black holes can merge together, forming an even more massive black hole. In addition, black holes at the centers of galaxies can accrete infalling gas, gaining in mass and size. If this process continues for billions of years, the black hole can become a supermassive black hole, like the one located at the center of our Milky Way Galaxy, weighing in at four million times the mass of the sun. 

Yet, some supermassive black holes are inferred to exist in the early universe, before there was enough time for the normal processes of black hole accretion and merging to occur. Some alternative methods have been proposed, like the direct collapse of primordial gas or processes associated with cosmic inflation, and many of these primordial black holes could have been made. The mystery endures.

Stellar Birth? Or, Another Phenomenon?

In 2019, astronomers from Japan, Taiwan and Princeton University discovered 83 quasars powered by supermassive black holes in the distant universe, from a time when the universe was less than 10 percent of its present age. “It is remarkable that such massive dense objects were able to form so soon after the Big Bang,” said Michael Strauss, a professor of astrophysical sciences at Princeton University who was one of the co-authors of the study. “Understanding how black holes can form in the early universe, and just how common they are, is a challenge for our cosmological models.”

This finding increases the number of black holes known at that epoch, and reveals, for the first time, how common they are early in the universe’s history. In addition, it provides new insight into the effect of black holes on the physical state of gas in the early universe in its first billion years. The research appears in a series of five papers published in The Astrophysical Journal and the Publications of the Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

“Deeply Compelling” –Weird Existence of Primordial Black Holes in the Early Universe


Light from one of the most distant quasars known, powered by a supermassive black hole lying 13.05 billion light-years away from Earth. The image was obtained by the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) mounted on the Subaru Telescope. The other objects in the field are mostly stars in our Milky Way or galaxies along the line of sight. (Image courtesy of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan)

Supermassive black holes, found at the centers of galaxies, can be millions or even billions of times more massive than the sun. While they are prevalent today, it is unclear when they first formed, and how many existed in the distant early universe. A supermassive black hole becomes visible when gas accretes onto it, causing it to shine as a “quasar.”  Previous studies have been sensitive only to the very rare, most luminous quasars, and thus the most massive black holes. The new discoveries probe the population of fainter quasars, powered by black holes with masses comparable to most black holes seen in the present-day universe.

Primordial Black Holes May Unveil Nature of Dark Matter

Gigantic Field-of-View of the “Hyper Suprime-Cam” 

The research team used data taken with a cutting-edge instrument, “Hyper Suprime-Cam” (HSC), mounted on the Subaru Telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, which is located on the summit of Maunakea in Hawaii. HSC has a gigantic field-of-view — 1.77 degrees across, or seven times the area of the full moon — mounted on one of the largest telescopes in the world. The HSC team is surveying the sky over the course of 300 nights of telescope time, spread over five years.


The team selected distant quasar candidates from the sensitive HSC survey data. They then carried out an intensive observational campaign to obtain spectra of those candidates, using three telescopes: the Subaru Telescope; the Gran Telescopio Canarias on the island of La Palma in the Canaries, Spain; and the Gemini South Telescope in Chile. The survey has revealed 83 previously unknown very distant quasars. 


Together with 17 quasars already known in the survey region, the researchers found that there is roughly one supermassive black hole per cubic giga-light-year — in other words, if you chunked the universe into imaginary cubes that are a billion light-years on a side, each would hold one supermassive black hole.

The 100 quasars identified from the HSC data. The top seven rows show the 83 newly discovered quasars while the bottom two rows represent 17 previously known quasars in the survey area. They appear extremely red due to the cosmic expansion and absorption of light in intergalactic space. All the images were obtained by HSC.

The sample of quasars in this study are about 13 billion light-years away from the Earth; in other words, we are seeing them as they existed 13 billion years ago. As the Big Bang took place 13.8 billion years ago, we are effectively looking back in time, seeing these quasars and supermassive black holes as they appeared only about 800 million years after the creation of the (known) universe.

“Gridiron” Visual History of the Universe from the Big Bang to Present

If the history of the universe from the Big Bang to the present were laid out on a football field, Earth and our solar system would not appear until our own 33-yard line. Life appeared just inside the 28-yard line and dinosaurs went extinct halfway between the 1-yard line and the goal. All of human history, since hominids first climbed out of trees, takes place within an inch of the goal line. On this timeline, the supermassive black holes discovered by Princeton astrophysicist Michael Strauss and his international team of colleagues would appear back on the universe’s 6-yard line, very shortly after the Big Bang itself.

Mystery of Reionization –Triggered by Quasars?

It is widely accepted that the hydrogen in the universe was once neutral, but was “reionized” — split into its component protons and electrons — around the time when the first generation of stars, galaxies and supermassive black holes were born, in the first few hundred million years after the Big Bang. This is a milestone of cosmic history, but astronomers still don’t know what provided the incredible amount of energy required to cause the reionization. A compelling hypothesis suggests that there were many more quasars in the early universe than detected previously, and it is their integrated radiation that reionized the universe.

“However, the number of quasars we observed shows that this is not the case,” explained Princeton’s Robert Lupton. “The number of quasars seen is significantly less than needed to explain the reionization.” Reionization was therefore caused by another energy source, most likely numerous galaxies that started to form in the young universe.

Relics of the Big Bang –“Dark Matter is Composed of Primordial Black Holes”

The Last Word – Like a Lighthouse at Night Viewed from a Ship

“These quasars seen in the early universe shine brightly, like a lighthouse at night viewed from a ship,” wrote astrophysicist and observational cosmologist, Eric Gawiser, at Rutgers University in an email to The Daily Galaxy. “But as with lighthouses, it’s what’s behind them that one should pay careful attention to,” he explains. “In this case, while it may turn out that normal star formation processes are able to form a billion solar mass black hole within the first billion years after the Big Bang, it’s actually easier to explain if there was a special mode of direct black hole formation that took place in our universe’s infant stages.”

“This can be a subtle question,’ he continues, “because there is not a direct conflict between the earliest appearance of quasars and the time that it takes a single massive star to collapse into a black hole, which can be as short as a million years after that star forms. Rather, our best-guess models make assumptions how many massive stars form in the early universe, how quickly they form, and whether they form near enough to each other for their resulting black holes to all coalesce into a billion-solar-mass black hole within a billion years – and it looks tough to achieve that.”    

“That it can take many hundreds of millions of years” isn’t necessarily wrong,” Gawiser concludes, “but it overestimates the typical timescale.  We see star formation within 30 million years of gas infall, and stars massive enough to create black holes live only a few million years after they form.” 

“Detailed studies of the high-redshift quasars we’re discovering show that many of them lie in merging galaxies,” Princeton University observational cosmologist, Michael Strauss, told The Daily Galaxy. “We’re trying to figure out whether the merging is what triggers the quasar activity, and what this means for black hole growth in the early universe.”

The study was made possible by the world-leading survey ability of Subaru and HSC. “The quasars we discovered will be an interesting subject for further follow-up observations with current and future facilities,” said Yoshiki Matsuoka, a former Princeton postdoctoral researcher at Ehime University in Japan, who led the study. “We will also learn about the formation and early evolution of supermassive black holes, by comparing the measured number density and luminosity distribution with predictions from theoretical models.”

Based on the results,  the team is working to find yet more distant black holes and discovering when the first supermassive black hole appeared in the universe.

The HSC collaboration included astronomers from Japan, Taiwan and Princeton University. 

Maxwell Moe, astrophysicist, NASA Einstein Fellow, University of Arizona via Eric Gawiser, Michael Strauss and Princeton University  

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