“These distant objects are like breadcrumbs leading us to Planet X,” said Carnegie Institution for Sciences’ Scott Sheppard. “The more of them we can find, the better we can understand the outer solar system and the possible planet that we think is shaping their orbits-a discovery that would redefine our knowledge of the solar system’s evolution.”
Astronomers have discovered a new object at the edge of our solar system. The new extremely distant object far beyond Pluto has an orbit that supports the presence of a larger Planet X. The object was discovered as part of the team’s ongoing hunt for unknown dwarf planets and Planet X. It is the largest and deepest survey ever conducted for distant solar system objects.
The Goblin is a newly confirmed dwarf planet that travels to the fringes of the solar system. Formally known as 2015 TG387, the nickname came from the “TG” part of the designation along with the fact that it was first seen around Halloween of 2015, according to the Carnegie Institution for Science.
The discovery was made by Sheppard, Northern Arizona University’s Chad Trujillo, and the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy’s David Tholen.
2015 TG387, announced by the International Astronomical Union’s Minor Planet Center, was discovered about 80 astronomical units (AU) from the sun. One AU is the distance between the Earth and Sun. For context, Pluto’s distance is around 34 AU, so 2015 TG387 is about two-and-a-half times further away from the sun than Pluto is right now.
2015 TG387 takes 40,000 years to circle the sun, but never actually comes close enough to the solar system’s giant planets—Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune—to feel their gravitational pull.
“It never interacts with anything that we know of in the solar system,” says Scott Sheppard, an astronomer at the Carnegie Institution for Science and a co-discoverer of 2015 TG387. “Somehow, it had to get on this elongated orbit in the past, and that’s the big question: What did it interact with to get [there]?”
“We think there could be thousands of small bodies like 2015 TG387 out on the solar system’s fringes, but their distance makes finding them very difficult,” Tholen said. “Currently we would only detect 2015 TG387 when it is near its closest approach to the sun. For some 99 percent of its 40,000-year orbit, it would be too faint to see, even with today’s largest telescopes.”
Tholen first observed 2015 TG387 in October of 2015 at the Japanese Subaru 8-meter telescope on Maunakea, Hawaii. The team’s software detected the unusual moving object, which led Tholen to more carefully measure the object’s position and determine where to point other telescopes for follow-up observations.
It took the team a few years of observations to obtain a good orbit for 2015T G387 because it moves slowly, over a large orbit, so it has a very long orbital period. Follow-up observations at the Magellan telescope at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory in Chile and the Discovery Channel Telescope in Arizona, were obtained in 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018, to measure 2015 TG387’s orbit.
With these data in hand, they determined that the newly-found object is on a very elongated orbit and the closest it ever gets to the sun, a point called perihelion, is about 65 AU. Only 2012 VP113 and Sedna, at 80 and 76 AU respectively, have more distant perihelia than 2015 TG387. Even though 2015 TG387 has the third-most-distant perihelion, its orbital semi-major axis is larger than that of both 2012 VP113 and Sedna, meaning it travels much farther from the Sun than they do. At its furthest point, it reaches all the way out to about 2,300 AU. 2015 TG387 is one of the few known objects that never comes close enough to the solar system’s giant planets, like Neptune and Jupiter, to have significant gravitational interactions with them.
“These so-called Inner Oort Cloud objects like 2015 TG387, 2012 VP113, and Sedna are isolated from most of the solar system’s known mass, which makes them immensely interesting,” Sheppard explained. “They can be used as probes to understand what is happening at the edge of our solar system.”
The object with the most distant orbit at perihelion, 2012 VP113, was also discovered by Sheppard and Trujillo, in 2014. The discovery of 2012 VP113 led Sheppard and Trujillo to notice similarities of the orbits of several extremely distant solar system objects, and they proposed the presence of an unknown planet several times larger than Earth–sometimes called Planet X–orbiting the Sun, well beyond Pluto at hundreds of AU.
2015 TG387 is likely on the small end of being a dwarf planet, since it has a diameter of roughly 300 kilometers. The location in the sky where 2015 TG387 reaches perihelion is similar to 2012 VP113, Sedna, and most other known extremely distant trans-Neptunian objects, suggesting that something is pulling them into similar types of orbits.
Trujillo and University of Oklahoma’s Nathan Kaib ran computer simulations to see how different hypothetical Planet X orbits would affect the orbit of 2015 TG387. The simulations included a super-Earth-mass planet at several hundred AU on an elongated orbit, as proposed by Caltech’s Konstantin Batygin and Michael Brown in 2016, building on earlier work by Sheppard and Trujillo.
“This fits in perfectly with what we would predict for Planet Nine, so I’m happy to see it discovered,” says Brown, the Caltech astronomer. Brown is among those responsible for Pluto’s reclassification; he discovered many large objects beyond Neptune that made scientists rethink their definition of planets.
Batygin was also excited. “I’m running code as we speak that evaluates how the inferred orbit and mass of [the hypothetical planet] are affected by this new object,” he said, when I contacted him the day before the discovery was announced.
Aside from its elongated orbit, little is known about 2015 TG387. The object is too far for astronomers to determine its composition or color. “It’s a point of light, it’s clear, it’s there, but it’s very faint,” Sheppard said.
Most of the simulations showed that not only was 2015 TG387’s orbit stable for the age of the solar system, but it was actually shepherded by Planet X’s gravity, which keeps the smaller 2015 TG387 away from the massive planet. This gravitational shepherding could explain why the most distant objects in our solar system have similar orbits. These orbits keep them from ever approaching the proposed planet too closely, similar to how Pluto never gets too close to Neptune even though their orbits cross.
“What makes this result really interesting is that Planet X seems to affect 2015 TG387 the same way as all the other extremely distant Solar System objects. These simulations do not prove that there is another massive planet in our Solar System, but they are further evidence that something big could be out there,” Trujillo concludes.
Ann-Marie Madigan, an astrophysicist at the University of Colorado at Boulder, reports Marina Koren in The Atlantic, says the discovery of objects with strange orbits bolsters a different theory, which she calls the “self-gravity mechanism”: The edges of the solar system are littered with small objects and, sometimes, when they orbit near one another, their collective gravity is powerful enough to jostle their bigger neighbors, pushing them off the plane of the solar system.
“I’m excited as the discovery of TG387 points to a large population of small bodies in the outer solar system,” Madigan said. “The more bodies we detect, the more likely it is that their collective gravity is important, so it’s good news for my theory, too.”
“The debate over a new planet in the solar system has many layers, continues Koen in The Atlantic, “including a rather trivial but contentious one: what to call it. Brown and Batygin’s favored name, Planet Nine, has irked some astronomers who never quite got over the injustice of Pluto’s demotion. Sheppard is aware of this tension and chooses to avoid it altogether by calling it Planet X. But even that title carries some baggage. In the early-20th century, the American astronomer Percival Lowell predicted that a planet seven times the mass of Earth orbited beyond Neptune. But Lowell never found the planet—it didn’t exist.”
The Daily Galaxy via Carnegie Institution for Science and The Atlantic
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